The preparation of bar bending schedule of an R.C.C beam requires proper understanding of the design and the detailing of the structural member. The calculations involved in the preparation of an R.C.C beam is explained step by step in this article.
In reinforcement detailing of concrete, it is very important to keep an order in which a bar is fixed. The bars that are used are numbered appropriately as per the placement in the drawings and the schedules kept.
The pin-jointed frames form truss system that has a triangular planar framework with straight members. The truss systems are mainly used in the construction of bridge and roof construction. A triangular formed out of 3 members will form the basic unit of a simple truss. The addition of members, two at a time will develop additional triangular units.
Free body diagram is one of the main aid used for solving static problem in the static analysis of structures.
Free Body Diagram of Structural Elements
The free body diagram is method that can be used in modelling a structure conveniently. FBD in more precise way is a method that we use to conceptualise a structure or its respective elements so that easy analysis of the same can be carried out.
The free body diagram can be defined as a graphical, symbolic and a dematerialised representation of a structure or its elements. This conversion will remove all the connecting pieces.
While drawing a free body diagram, all the physical attributes that are on the structures are removed and symbolised conceptually. Features of Free Body Diagram A simple single line will be used to represent a body or a segmentConnection will be represented by distinct properties.The junction will be conceptualised to a set of forces and moments. These forces are reactions at the connection. When comes to nodes, th…
Paint is a fluid material that has the ability to spread on a solid surface. This material on drying will form a film. The paint is applied in different layers over the surface called as the primary coat called as a first coat, second, second loaf etc.
The short-term properties of concrete such as elastic modulus, shear strength, tensile, compressive strength and the stress-strain characteristics are expressed in terms of the uniaxial cube compressive strength of a 15cm x 15cm cube, moist cured for 28 days. This compressive strength is used as the design basis.
The strength under uniaxial compression can be determined by the compression testing machine, as per IS 516: 1959. The loading is strain - controlled and generally applied at a uniform rate of 0.001mm.mm per minute in a standard test.
The Maximum stress that is attained during the loading process is called as the cube strength of concrete. You May Also Read: Characteristic Compressive Strength
Concrete Strength under Uniaxial Compression Stress
By conducting tests on the cube, only strength parameters can be obtained. By conducting tests on the cylinder of size 150mm diameter and 300mm height, compressive strength, as well as stress-strain properties, can be obtained.
Any structure under consideration is made of both the structural elements and non-structural elements. The structural elements are elements that are load carrying units. For.example columns and beams. Non-structural elements are those that do have a major role in load carrying, these involve false ceilings, partitions, doors etc.
The ingredients used in the concrete mix i.e. cement, sand, aggregates, admixtures and supplementary materials if any, have a great effect on the bleeding of the concrete. Special consideration on the choice and selection of these materials can help to avoid the bleeding effect seen in concrete.
The knowledge about the property of fresh concrete enables us to study the behavior of concrete in its hardened state and adjust them accordingly in order to obtain the desired results. The different fresh properties of concrete are explained below:
The main factors that affect the workability of concrete are explained briefly in the below section:
1. Water Content
2. Mix Proportion
3. Size of Aggregate
4. Shape of Aggregate
5. Surface Texture
8. Effect of Environmental Conditions
9. Effect of Time
Higher the water content, more will be the fluidity of concrete mix, which will influence the workability. More water can be added, provided a corresponding higher quantity of cement also to be added to keep the water-cement ratio (w/c) on a constant.
Higher the aggregate-cement ratio, leaner will the concrete mix. In the rich mix (lower aggregate-cement(a/c) ratio) more paste is available in order to make the mix cohesive and faulty to give better workability. In a leaner mix, less quantity of cement is available for the lubrication per unit surface area of aggregate and hence the mobility of aggregate in the concrete mix is restrained.
The concern about "how long the building will last" is the main concern for the builders and the architects while they are planning a new structure. Presently the main requirement is that the structures, mainly bridges have to offer desirable performance and durability for a time period of one full century, with a little chance of maintenance that will be cost effective to the community.
One such step to achieve this extensive time span is the professional installation of stainless steel reinforcing bars. These are called as rebars.